The AIDA model is one of the longest serving models used in advertising, having been developed in the late nineteenth century. Since its first appearance in the marketing and advertising literature, the model has been modified and expanded to account for the advent of new advertising media and communications platforms. A number of modified alternative models are in current use.
Thus, the simple AIDA model is now one of a class of models, collectively known as hierarchical models or hierarchy of effects models.
( Attention or Awareness, Interest, Desire and Action)
The AIDA model is widely used in marketing and advertising to describe the steps or stages that occur from the time when a consumer first becomes aware of a product or brand through to when the consumer trials a product or makes a purchase decision. Given that many consumers become aware of brands via advertising or marketing communications, the AIDA model helps to explain how an advertisement or marketing communications message engages and involves consumers in brand choice. In essence, the AIDA model proposes that advertising messages need to accomplish a number of tasks in order to move the consumer through a series of sequential steps from brand awareness through to action) purchase and consumption.)
Attention or Awareness
- Attention – The consumer becomes aware of a category, product or brand (usually through advertising
- Interest – The consumer becomes interested by learning about brand benefits & how the brand fits with lifestyle
- Desire – The consumer develops a favorable disposition towards the brand
- Action – The consumer forms a purchase intention, shops around, engages in trial or makes a purchase
Using a hierarchical system, such as AIDA, provides the marketer with a detailed understanding of how target audiences change over time, and provides insights as to which types of advertising messages are likely to be more effective at different junctures. Moving from step to step, the total number of prospects diminishes. This phenomenon is sometimes described as a “purchase funnel”
All hierarchy of effects models exhibit several common characteristics. Firstly, they are all linear, sequential models built on an assumption that consumers move through a series of steps or stages involving cognitive, affective and behavioral responses that culminate in a purchase. Secondly, all hierarchy of effects models can be reduced to three broad stages - Cognitive? Affective emotions)?Behavioral CAB.
Three broad stages implicit in all hierarchy of effects models:
- (Cognitive) Awareness or learning
- (Affective) Feeling, interest or desire
- (Conative) Behavior and action
In the AISDALSLove Model new phases are 'Search' (after Interest), the phase when consumers actively searching information about brand/ product, 'Like/dislike' (after Action) as one of elements in the post-purchase phase, then continued with 'Share' (consumers will share their experiences about brand to other consumers) and the last is 'Love/hate' (a deep feeling towards branded product, that can become the long-term effect of advertising) which new elements such as Search, Like/dislike (evaluation), Share and Love/hate as long-term effects have also been added.
Finally, S – 'Satisfaction' – is added to suggest the likelihood that a customer might become a repeat customer.
According to DAGMAR, each purchase prospect goes through 4 steps
These steps are also known as ACCA advertising formula. ACCA/DAGMAR is a descendant of AIDA advertising formula and considered to be more popular and comprehensive than AIDA. Developed for the measurement of advertising effectiveness it maps the states of mind that a consumer passes through.
Awareness-trial-repeat (ATR) is a paradigm consisting of three key steps by the intended user. The steps take the person or firm from a state of ignorance about a new product to the point of product adoption.
Awareness (cognition) may be of the product generally, its brand, and one or more of its attributes.
Trial means some form of test purchase or use, following upon favorable affect stemming from knowledge regarding the attributes.
It represents one of the customer behavior models in which increase available sales and loyalty data at the time.